Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae. In 55 and 54 BC, he invaded Britain, although he made little headway. Quintus Labienus Parthicus was a Roman general in the Late Republic period.  Caesar may have also wished to heal the rift from the civil war, or distract from it, by reminding the populace of Rome of the threat of a neighboring empire.  The deployment of the army to Macedonia near the Dacian frontier and the lack of military preparation in Syria have also been used to lend support for this hypothesis.  From 40 to 33 BC Rome and Antony in particular would wage an unsuccessful war with Parthia. The Parthian campaign was the turning point in Antony’s fortunes. The conflicts were triggered by the constant Dacian threat on the Danubian province of Moesia and also by the increasing need for resources of the economy of the Empire.  Octavius was sent to Apollonia (within modern Albania), ostensibly as a student, to remain in contact with the army. To many Romans this required revenge. Following a similar line of thought in June of that year Caesar temporarily wavered in his intention to leave with the expedition. Pictures. Sheet Music.  However, some of the aspects of Caesar's planned kingship may have been invented after the assassination in order to justify the act. And Parthia was not invulnerable to a Roman army led by a commander of genius. In 38 BC, Mark Antony invaded Parthia with an even larger force than that which Caesar had planned to use, numbering over 100,000 legionaries, 24,000 auxiliaries, and 10,000 cavalry, only to meet with disaster. At the time of Caesar’s death, Octavian was designated with Caesar’s troops for the Parthian campaign in Apollonia. The campaign was to start with the pacification of Dacia, followed by an invasion of Parthia.  In Dacia, Burebista was to die the same year as Caesar, leading to the dissolution of his kingdom. However, neither Crassus nor Mark Antony were in Caesar’s league as generals, while Caesar was Caesar – an all time great military mind. to pay for Caesar's projected Parthian War. He commanded troops with Brutus during the Battle of Philippi against the combined forces of Mark Antony and Octavian, Caesar's former supporters, and committed suicide after being defeated by Mark Antony. Then Caesar brought the main body of the legions out to fight the Parthians. One of the four consular legions, recruited by Caesar when he was consul in 48.  After a victorious campaign he would have, as Plutarch wrote, "completed this circuit of his empire, which would then be bounded on all sides by the ocean"  and return home with his lifelong dictatorship secured. Parthian Wars AAR: Caesar's Revenge. He then went to Egypt, where he defeated the Egyptian pharaoh and put Cleopatra on the throne.   Caesar intended to leave Rome to start the campaign on 18 March; however, three days prior to his departure he was assassinated.  It ended in failure and his death at the Battle of Carrhae. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 B.C. By 52 Pompey and Caesar stood face to face, still nominally friends but with no personal link between them and no common interests. Let’s talk some more about Antony’s Parthian campaign. It was to be a massive endeavor with the largest force he had ever led: 16 legions and 10,000 cavalry, in addition to support troops. He is often called "the richest man in Rome". As he writes that once Parthia had been subdued, the army would move through the Caucasus, to attack Scythia and return to Italy after conquering Germania. The campaign was certainly publicly cast as a response to Crassus' bumbling campaign at Carrhae, but the explanations that different sources give for Caesar's personal motive are all different. These wars were critically important in the transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. , Some academics have theorized that Caesar's pairing with Alexander and Trajan's invasion of Parthia, near the time of Plutarch's writing, led to exaggerations in the presented invasion plan. Speculative History. Podcasts.  It was to begin with a punitive attack on Dacia under King Burebista, who had been threatening Macedonia's northern border. The cavalry of the Gauls were an elite part of their war-band and played a crucial role during Vercingetorix' campaign against Caesar.    Plutarch also recorded that once Parthia was subdued the army would continue to Scythia, then Germania and finally back to Rome. [lower-alpha 4] Also Parthia had taken Pompey's side in the recent civil war against Caesar. Roman soldiers in Syria, many of whom were former Republicans fighting in the last civil war, joined the force, and the Levant and much of Asia Minor were swiftly overrun by Pacorus I and Labienus, respectively. Roman retreat-Romans defeat Parthian on battlefield, but cannot take cities,causing retreat Votes: 1 1 Once his campaigns were over, he served as Roman dictator until his assassination on March 15, 44 BC. Velleius Paterculus – History of Rome (first century A.D.) Paterculus was a Roman historian who wrote a short Roman history in two books, circa AD 30, which made mention of the Carrhae campaign. While he was losing up to 30,000 irreplaceable men and a foreign war, Octavian was consolidating his hold over the Western empire and the hearts of his fellow Romans. Caesar realistically would lead a successful campaign in Parthia until matter’s at home got so drastic he had to return. Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure. While none of Caesar's coins specifically mentions Parthia, I include a coin from a massive issue struck in the four week period February-March 44 B.C. A Historical Mystery A Military Campaign General History Revolution! He needed massive funds to achieve Caesar’s wishes, and he demanded 700 million sesterces as the proportion of the funds set aside by Caesar for his Parthian Campaign. In 41 BCE, the Parthians invaded Roman territory with heavily armored cavalry - more like Knights or Cataphracts. At the time of Caesar’s death, Octavian was designated with Caesar’s troops for the Parthian campaign in Apollonia. Antony's Parthian War was a military campaign by Mark Antony, the eastern triumvir of the Roman Republic, against the Parthian Empire under Phraates IV. Marcus Licinius Crassus was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. As a preliminary, he planned to first invade and conquer the kingdom of Dacia, roughly modern Romania, which he calculated could be accomplished by the end of 44 BC.  He used Caesar's proposed invasion plan, of attacking through Armenia, where it was felt the support of the local king could be relied on. , There is evidence that Caesar had begun practical preparation for the campaign some time before late 45 BC. The Gallic War ended with complete Roman victory at the Battle of Alesia. Battles between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic began in … Publius Ventidius Bassus was a Roman general and one of Julius Caesar's protégés. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 BC. After he learned about his adoption, Octavian decided to move towards Brindisi where he arrived in April. Documents. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 682 years of Roman–Persian Wars. Crassus hoped to gain fame by conquering farther east than any previous Roman.  As Caesar planned to be away for some time he reordered the senate  and also insured that all magistrates, consuls, and tribunes would be appointed by him during his absence. Caesar in his commentary on the Second Civil War has the following brief mention: ... Had he lived to conduct his own Parthian campaign then we may have had a more fulsome commentary on Crassus’ campaign and its failure. His forces carried out a campaign of massacres in the northern regions of the Parthian Empire before withdrawing to Asia Minor, where he was assassinated in April 217. He needed to win his own glory and gain new riches from a distant land; he had to go back to war. Let’s talk about Antony’s Parthian campaign. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian Empire established by Alexander the Great. Audiobooks. These coins were often struck carelessly and are normally encountered with peripheral weakness, perhaps evidence of the mint's haste to complete its task. He then finished off his Roman opponents in Africa and Hispania. Caesar Ascending-Conquest of Parthia, is the second volume of the alternate history series in which Caesar survives the assassination attempt in March of 44 BC and carries out his planned invasion of Parthia. These coins were most likely struck in the fund-raising efforts preparing for the war on Parthia. Julius Caesar, after ensuring victory in his civil war, planned a campaign into the Parthian Empire in 44 BC. This victory at Carrhae placed Parthia on an equal, if not superior footing with Rome, at least for a brief moment in history.  Plutarch, however, describes a bolder campaign. According to Plutarch in his "Life of Antony", the three military victories of Ventidius over the Parthians singularly resulted in the only award to a Roman general of the triumphal ceremony for victory over Parthians. Caesar sent the cavalry and auxiliaries under Domitius Calvinus to harry the Parthian forces for several days. The Roman–Parthian Wars were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. After the defeat of Caesar's assassins at the A century and a half later, the emperor Trajan did exactly what Caesar had planned, conquering Dacia, then successfully invading and defeating Parthia, seizing its capital city of Ctesiphon, annexing Mesopotamia, and dictating a highly favorable peace treaty. His peers included Marcus Antonius, Marcus Junius Brutus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, the poet Gaius Valerius Catullus, and the historian Gaius Sallustius Crispus.  , After Caesar's death Mark Antony successfully vied for control of the legions from the planned invasion, still stationed in Macedonia and he temporarily took control of that province in order to do so.  However, Caesar finally decided to leave Rome and join the army in Macedonia. In a meeting of the Triumvirs Crassus was able to secure the governorship of Syria, a very wealthy area that bordered the Parthian empire. Following an unprecedented and highly successful campaign in Gaul, Caesar became hugely popular with the Roman people. It is likely that his six legions were sent to a base Caesar had created in Macedonia in 45-44 B.C. Home. The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defense against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbors on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals and Germanic tribes. At its height, the empire spanned Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what are now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Turkmenistan. Gaius Caesar was consul in AD 1 and the grandson of Augustus, the first emperor of the Roman Empire. The army greeted Octavian enthusiastically.  It has also been proposed that Caesar's opposition would be fearful of him returning victorious from his campaign and more popular than ever. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, known by the anglicisation Pompey the Great, was a leading Roman general and statesman, whose career was significant in Rome's transformation from a republic to empire. together they kept some semblance of stability in an increasingly unstable Republic. He belonged to the last generation of Roman nobiles who came of age and began a political career before the collapse of the Republic. It is commonly seen as one of the earliest and most important battles between the Roman and Parthian Empires and one of the most crushing defeats in Roman history. Find your next favorite Podcast Become a member … The Roman–Parthian Wars (54 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. It was the first series of conflicts in what would be 682 years of Roman–Persian Wars. Jealous of Caesar’s and Pompey’s military successes, the rich businessman-turned-general Crassus sought glory to the east by attacking the Parthian kingdom in Persia — only to meet ignominious defeat and death at Carrhae in 53 BC.  These grander plans are found only in Plutarch's Parallel Lives , and their authenticity is questioned by most scholars. Marc Antony's own attempted invasion ended before it had even begun: he was betrayed early on in the campaign by the King of Armenia, who turned his supply train, containing all the materials Antony needed to construct siege weapons to take the Parthian cities, over to the Parthians, forcing Antony to beat a hasty retreat. .   It has been suggested by Christopher Pelling that Dacia was going to be the expedition's main target, not Parthia. He was the first king who successfully unified the tribes of the Dacian Kingdom, which comprised the area located between the Danube, Tisza, and Dniester rivers and modern day Romania. In 39 BC, Antony sent Ventidius, who defeated and executed Labienus in a counter-attack, and then drove Pacorus I out of the Levant. The curia in … to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae. Julius Caesar (49-44 B.C.) After he learned about his adoption, Octavian decided to move towards Brindisi where he arrived in April. Julius Caesar planned to invade Parthia in 44 BC. David Vagi states the horse on the reverse is presumably a reference to the 1,000 Gallic horsemen Publius brought to the campaign, or perhaps to … The Gallic War mainly took place in what is now France. Burebista was a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes from 82/61 BC to 45/44 BC. Left to right- Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey. He then pushed into southern Anatolia, still with Parthian support. One of the reason the conspirators killed Caesar before his Parthian campaign is the fact that they knew that if he accomplished even half of what he said he would do, and returned laden with the unimaginable wealth of the east, then the people of Rome would have made him king without any hesitation. He was the brother-in-law of Brutus, another leader of the conspiracy. It alleged that it had been prophesied that only a Roman king could defeat Parthia. History of Iran: Parthian Empire By: Jona Lendering The Parthian empire was the most enduring of the empires of the ancient Near East. Publius Licinius Crassus was one of two sons of Marcus Licinius Crassus, the so-called "triumvir", and Tertulla, daughter of Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus. Suetonius states that Caesar wished to proceed cautiously and would not fully engage the Parthian army unless he could first determine their full strength. , The public pretense for the expedition was that less than ten years prior in 53 BC an invasion of the Parthian Empire had been attempted by the Roman consul Marcus Licinius Crassus. , The expedition was planned to take three years.  By 44 BC Caesar had begun a mass mobilization, sixteen legions (c.60,000 men) and ten thousand cavalry were being gathered for the invasion. He was consul three times and celebrated three Roman triumphs. References to the Parthian campaign are found on denarii struck by Publius Licinius Crassus, moneyer of c. 55 B.C., and son of Marcus Licinius Crassus. History Themes. By the 1st century BC the Dacians had become the dominant tribe. After intervening to overthrow rulers in client kingdoms adjoining Parthia, he invaded in 216 using an abortive wedding proposal to the Parthian king's daughter as a casus belli. He occupied the Roman province of Syria together with the Parthians in 40 BC. His adversaries also gave him the nickname adulescentulus carnifex for his ruthlessness. Julius Caesar invades Pathia Decisive Roman victory-Parthia … He received greetings from veterans with extraordinary tactics and prudence. While none of Caesar's coins specifically mentions Parthia, I include a coin from a massive issue struck in the four week period February-March 44 B.C. The son of Titus Labienus, he made an alliance with Parthia and invaded the Roman provinces in the eastern Mediterranean which were under the control of Mark Antony.  Although he implies that Caesar's goal was an expansion of the empire, not just its stabilization. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for The Defeat of Rome in the East: Crassus, the Parthians, and the Disastrous Battle of Carrhae, 53 BC at Amazon.com. After the Parni nomads had settled in Parthia and had built a small independent kingdom, they rose to power under king Mithradates the Great (171-138 BCE). Ancient Rome. It was earmarked for Caesar's campaign against the Parthian empire, which was cancelled after the dictatator's death. It was earmarked for Caesar's campaign against the Parthian empire, which was cancelled after the dictatator's death.  [lower-alpha 3], Plutarch's Parallel Lives was written with the intention of finding correlations between the lives of famous Romans and Greeks;  for example, Caesar was paired with Alexander the Great. Plutarch also recorded that once Parthia was s Following the First Punic War, naval battles were less significant than land battles to the military history of Rome due to its encompassment of lands of the periphery and its unchallenged dominance of the Mediterranean Sea.  The campaign was to start with the pacification of Dacia, followed by an invasion of Parthia. Parthia was no pushover, as evinced by the Battle of Carrhae in 53 BC, where a Parthian cavalry force of 10,000 had all but annihilated a much larger Roman army of roughly 50,000, led by Caesar’s fellow Triumvir, Crassus. He would experience an accelerated political career befitting a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, with the Roman Senate allowing him to advance his career without first holding a quaestorship or praetorship, offices that ordinary senators were required to hold as part of the cursus honorum. to pay for Caesar's projected Parthian War. Caesar's plan was, after a brief pacification of Dacia, to continue east into Parthian territory. A second Parthian invasion of Syria by Pacorus I resulted in the latter's death and Parthian failure. In the 7th and 6th centuries BC it became home to the Thracian peoples, including the Getae and the Dacians. Caesar, Pompey and Crassus formed a triumvirate to put an end to political strife. The Death of Marcus Licinius Crassus by Lancelot Blondeel, (circa 1548 - 1558) Musea Brugge – Groeningemuseum ( Public Domain ) As predicted, Crassus met his end at the battle of Carrhae 53 BC as the Parthian forces soundly defeated the Romans. The military campaigns of Julius Caesar constituted both the Gallic War and Caesar's civil war. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. Sometime in the 2nd century BC the Dacians expelled the Celts from their lands. Using this fund to raise an army against the Senate’s enemy Mark Antony, Octavian found large support within the senate and Caesar’s veteran legionaries. Rise of Empire Your Favorite General. in preparation for his aborted Parthian campaign.   Malitz, while acknowledging that the Scythia and Germania plans appear unrealistic, believes they were credible given the geographic knowledge of the time. Read Life of Augustus Caesar #28 – Parthia Pt 2 by with a free trial.   [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] Here the ancient sources diverge. Military campaign that Gaius Julius Caesar never executed, Caesar's invasion plan used more cavalry than, From 46 BC Quintus Caecilius Bassus had control of. Caesar pressed Pompey to renew them, but Pompey held off, preserving his freedom of action. His assassination prevented it – Gareth argued how senatorial fears that Caesar would be successful in this planned eastern expedition factored heavily in his murder. The Dacian Wars were two military campaigns fought between the Roman Empire and Dacia during Emperor Trajan's rule. Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from a constitutional republic into the autocratic Roman Empire. Crassus’ Parthian campaign ended in disaster and in Crassus’ death (53). However, he would never get the opportunity to try: three days before he was to leave Rome for the Parthian campaign, Caesar was assassinated by Roman senators. In AD 66, Nero was marshaling his forces for an invasion of… XXXVIII Legions that Caesar constituted in 45 to substitute the veteran legions that were pensioned off. to avenge the earlier defeat of a Roman army led by Marcus Licinius Crassus at the Battle of Carrhae.Caesar's plan was, after a brief pacification of Dacia, to continue east into the Parthian territory. Forget Spain. Its Parthian defenders put up some resistance, but the legions soon captured it, and, apparently, also captured neighboring Seleucia. The army greeted Octavian enthusiastically. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. PC : AGEOD's series of Grand strategy games set during the Roman empire. Sign In Join. According to Dio, the Roman people's desire for this revenge led to Caesar being given sole command of the Parthian campaign by a unanimous vote. , Six of these legions had already been sent to Macedonia to train, along with a large sum of gold for the expedition. The Parthian army had success at first, but when a real commander and army showed up (Ventidius with a few legions) Thread starter Mrbsct; Start date May 3, 2015; Tags caesar invades julius parthia; Home. 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