urtica ferox toxin

… We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Compound muscle action potentials amplitudes on the left side of toxin-administered rats at day 14 were significantly reduced compared to the right uninjected side. It’s covered in an array of poisonous syringe-like spines. $�@��9:��b`� dS�l9bX400v�$��030h3�3*1/��e�kf�l��8��#��=��ۤk�5l�}`�XY�1�]�`���L��4#P�6�pF17�(�#@� K�� Latin names: Nettle - Urtica urens, Pellitory-of-the-wall - Parietaria judaica, Perennial nettle -Urtica dioica, Tree nettle - Urtica ferox, Red dead nettle - Lamium pupureum. On April 28, a stoical, experienced 60 year old hunter, was on a three day trip deerstalking with two friends in the Kaweka Ranges on the southern side of the remote Mangatainoka River. PMID: 8367088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: If you’ve ever had the misfortune of brushing against a stinging nettle, you know the pain-inducing power of the tiny trichome. 2013 Jan;61(1):60-2. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2012.704625. A case of canine poisoning with New Zealand Tree Nettle (Ongaonga, Urtica ferox) A case of canine poisoning with New Zealand Tree Nettle (Ongaonga, Urtica ferox) N Z Vet J. Clark FP. The stiff stinging hairs are like little (not so little in ongaonga) hypodermic needles that inject the toxins under the skin. We developed an experimental animal model of U. ferox toxin neuropathy to determine its neurophysiological and pathological characteristics. Botany Circular No. : +64 3 474 0999; fax: +64 3 474 7625. It is a message that repeats itself for up to a week, every time you wash the offending part of your anatomy. • Ongaonga (Urtica ferox) Description-Commonly known as ongaonga or New Zealand tree nettle, Urtica ferox is a native species of stinging nettle. Ongaonga, Urtica ferox. The identity and mechanism of action of the toxin responsible for neuropathy are uncertain. A case of canine poisoning with New Zealand Tree Nettle (Ongaonga, Urtica ferox) A case of canine poisoning with New Zealand Tree Nettle (Ongaonga, Urtica ferox) N Z Vet J. 2013 Jan;61(1):60-2. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2012.704625. 1993 Jun 9;106(957):234. 0000000986 00000 n The stings of Urtica ferox, the ongaonga or tree nettle of New Zealand, have been known to kill horses, dogs and at least one human. Tel. DESCRIPTION: ''The ongaonga is said to begin life as a number of small plants, which spread (papa uku) over the ground, and are afterwards replaced by a single large stem. Urtica ferox (tree nettle, ongaonga) For more information see:* Poisonous native plants (Te Ara - Encyclopedia of NZ) Henry Connor and John Fountain. Present address: Neurology Department, Dunedin Hospital, Private Bag 1921, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. 1. endstream endobj 61 0 obj <>/Size 40/Type/XRef>>stream Most animals will not approach ongaonga because of its vicious needles. And the Greek word for nettle is “cnida,” as in cnidarians – like the jellyfish and coral we talked about two weeks ago. 2009. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. trailer The New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox), showing secretory (glandular), or stinging, hairs (trichomes). I think urtica ferox had evolved the large size and toxic stingers, because moas ( extinct flightless birds, related to kiwis) ate nettles and nettles got fed up being foods for moas, so when tree nettles arrived, moas ate the leaves, but got stung in mouth, so moas and birds learnt to leave the newly evolved tree nettles alone. Recovery occurred over a period of a few weeks. Urtica ferox is a New Zealand endemic that is commonly found in coastal and lowland areas as well as forest edges and shrublands. The New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox), showing secretory (glandular), or stinging, hairs (trichomes). Contact with the stinging hairs of the plant causes painful stinging and allergic reactions in the skin, including welts, hives, itching, burning sensation, and general irritation. Skin contact with the hairs is very painful. (I'm speaking from experience, unfortunately.) Two of the plant species mentioned by the hosts of Caustic Soda are members of this family – ongaonga (Urtica ferox) and gympie gympie (Dendrocnide moroides) – both of which are on the extreme side of the scale. Photo by Craig Baxter. I thrilled when I read this. The toxin itself is called triffydin. Ongaonga (Urtica ferox) is a New Zealand tree nettle. 0000001945 00000 n Category Botany 2011. Present address: Department of Medicine, University of Otago Medical School, P.O. A species of stinging nettle, Urtica ferox, is indigenous to New Zealand and has caused deaths in animals and humans. A species of stinging nettle, Urtica ferox, is indigenous to New Zealand and has caused deaths in animals and humans. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated markedly reduced compound muscle action potentials and prolonged distal motor latencies. Poisonous plants in New Zealand (Landcare Research) Poisonous plants in New Zealand (RNZ Institute of Horticulture) During a collection expedition and subsequent sample preparation an emeritus neurologist exposed himself to the fluid in the trichomes (C) and recorded the experience in detail (D). : +81 4 2995 1663; fax: +81 4 2996 5208. Most herbivores are discouraged from grazing on this plant because of irritating toxins secreted by … Flowers and fruit tiny, in short spikes at base of leaves. After cooking, some plants with stinging hairs, such as Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), are eaten as vegetables. 66 (1786). 0000002469 00000 n The show invitation was a linen baseball cap, packed in a shoebox emblazoned with the words URTICA FEROX. Urtica ferox) poisoning Urtica chamaedryoides Pursh: a stinging nettle, or fireweed and some related species. xref The combined total of enquiries for these 15 species was 2754 calls (representing approximately 25% of all enquiries regarding plant exposures). Also known by its botanical name, Urtica ferox, this killer plant is well-documented. Known as Ongaonga by the native Mãori, Urtica ferox or tree nettle is a largely woody shrub is covered in nettles that inject anything that rubs against them with poison. Multiple stingings can have a very painful reaction which causes inflammation, a rash, itching, and in high concentrations loss of motor movement, paralysis, drop in blood pressure, convulsions, blurred vision and confusion. 0000007687 00000 n Present address: Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine 3, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513, Japan. We previously reported a human case of acute polyneuropathy due to U. ferox stings. Neurophysiological and histological studies were carried out 5, 14 and 28 days after administration. from the New Zealand Medical Journal106, no. The hairs shown in this photo were up to 5 mm in length. BHL POWO . New Zealand's native plants are not all harmless. The toxin present in the spines is triffydin (or tryfydin). Neither species seems troubled by the plants’ spines and toxins (see sidebar, page 62). %%EOF The Maori people used it as a medicine. Contact us about this record. There are five native stinging nettle species and, unfortunately, they grow in places where people like to go. Also known by its botanical name, Urtica ferox, this killer plant is well-documented. endstream endobj 41 0 obj <>/Metadata 7 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 6 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/OCProperties<>/OCGs[42 0 R]>>/StructTreeRoot 9 0 R/Type/Catalog/Lang(�� E N - U S)/LastModified(D:20070709102544)/PageLabels 4 0 R>> endobj 42 0 obj <. Box 913, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. The New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox), showing secretory (glandular), or stinging, hairs (trichomes). Stinging Nettle (Ongaonga) Urtica ferox A truly nasty plant if not treated carefully. 1993 Jun 9;106(957):234. Chemical Warfare and Examples paper sample. Jason Chase, 25, was found dead following an intense search and rescue effort at the Ruahine Ranges, in New Zealand, on January 3, 2003. Leaves and stems are armed with white, stinging hairs, each hair fed by a tiny bladder of toxin. Full Record. 3. Roberts, Nelson, New Zealand. 40 0 obj <> endobj Skin contact with the hairs is very painful. Tree nettle (Urtica ferox) poisoning. "unusually large stinging spines that can result in a painful sting that lasts several days" and "The toxin from 5 spines are enough to kill a guinea pig". The stinging hairs of most nettle species contain formic acid, serotonin and histamine; however recent studies of Urtica … These unsaturated alcohols have a strong carrot-like odor and are noncompetitive antagonists for the gamma-aminocutyric acid (GABA) neural transmitter in the central nervous system. Take for instance Ongaonga, the New Zealand tree nettle. 0000003007 00000 n Urtica ferox aspera Pseudowintera axillaris Cheilanthes sieberi 10 0.6 0.15 0.2 10 creeping 3 1 3 prostrate creeping 2 0.4 8 creeping Some species are seasonally palatable and relatively harmless to livestock (notably Coriaria spp and Urtica). Clark FP. Urtica ferox (tree nettle or ongaonga) is endemic to New Zealand. The New Zealand tree nettle ( Urtica ferox ), showing secretory (glandular), or stinging, hairs (trichomes). Published by Manaaki Whenua Press. The toxins they … We previously reported a human case of acute polyneuropathy due to U. ferox stings. On Boxing Day 1961, two young hunters stumbled into a thick swathe of nettles in the Ruahine Range. Then there’s Urtica ferox, the stinging nettle, or ongaonga. Urtica is the Latin word for “nettle,” and the ongaonga tree is also known as the tree nettle or Urtica ferox. Most herbivores are discouraged from grazing on this plant because of irritating toxins secreted by the trichomes. G.R. There are stories of people lightly brushing this thing and being crippled to the point of wishing for suicide within an hour. <<8361F18E5277CA4DA85D848404FCDD76>]>> Urtica ferox contains several chemicals that may account for the acute pain but not for the evolving neurological features. (I'm speaking from experience, unfortunately.) Male Wistar rats received either normal saline or fluid from U. ferox trichomes by injection into the epineurium of the left sciatic nerve. The pain or itch goes away in a few hours. G.R. We developed an experimental animal model of U. ferox toxin neuropathy to determine its neurophysiological and pathological characteristics. ; March 2004; Own work; Avenue; 0000059656 00000 n While the exact makeup of these toxins is under investigation, the effect is certain. 0000059924 00000 n The very worst account of extreme poisoning leading to death was reported on Boxing Day in 1961. The nature of the toxin secreted by nettles is not settled. Most herbivores are discouraged from grazing on this plant because of irritating toxins secreted by the trichomes. Young parts covered in white needles that inject a painful toxin. Like all nettles, it is covered in stinging hairs that put poison into the skin of a person or animal that brushes against it. IPNI Life Sciences Identifier (LSID) urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:857569-1 Publication Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus Collation 66 Date of Publication Oct-Nov 1786 Family as entered in IPNI Urticaceae Original Data Remarks N. Zel. One recorded human death is known: a lightly clad young man died five hours after walking through a dense patch. 957 (9 June 1993): 234. A species of stinging nettle, Urtica ferox, is indigenous to New Zealand and has caused deaths in animals and humans. The toxin from five Ongaonga ( Urtica ferox) spines is enough to kill a guinea pig. The plant grows in coastal and regenerating shrublands up to 600 metres above sea level, where it may form dense thickets up to 2 metres tall. : +81 4 2995 1617; fax: +81 4 2996 5202. Most herbivores are discouraged from grazing on this plant because of irritating toxins secreted by the trichomes. Almost everyone is affected by nettles, which have a stinging or numbing effect when touched, sometimes leaving red marks. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Toxin-injected rats developed paresis of the left leg by 14 days with recovery by 28 days. startxref References Urtica ferox: Family: Origin: New Zealand: Description: Uses: Allergens: Toxic (acetylcholine, 5-HT, histamine) Allergy: 2 fatalities: Cross reactions: Other information: Patch test: See smartphone apps to check your skin. The toxin from five Ongaonga (Urtica ferox) spines is enough to kill a guinea pig. Tree nettle (Urtica ferox) poisoning. The toxins they release can reportedly lead to convulsions and death. We developed an experimental animal model of U. ferox toxin neuropathy to determine its neurophysiological and pathological characteristics. U. ferox neurotoxin thus produced a transient neuropathy in rat peripheral nerves with neurophysiological and pathological features suggestive of axonopathy. Tel. Native plants can pack a serious poisonous punch, and death is by no means quick or pleasant. We previously reported a human case of acute polyneuropathy due to U. ferox stings. G.R. If you live in New Zealand, Ongaonga (Urtica ferox) is a plant you try to avoid. Keep an eye out for Urtica incisa, another NZ stinging nettle species common around Wellington, looking just like a small version of Urtica ferox. foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and ongaonga/New Zealand tree nettle (Urtica ferox). Tree nettle, Ongaonga, Urtica ferox. The plant grows in coastal and regenerating shrublands up to 600 metres above sea level, where it may form dense thickets up to 2 metres tall. The stings of Urtica ferox, the ongaonga or tree nettle of New Zealand, have been known to kill horses, dogs and at least one human. 0000065117 00000 n 0000000756 00000 n The observed sequence of events suggests a capsaicin-like response with initial burning pain and paraesthesias, followed by numbness that persists for several days. The pain lasts for 3 days! 0000003899 00000 n https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2010.07.004. 2013 Jan;61(1):60-2. doi: 10.1080/00480169.2012.704625. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Roberts, Nelson, New Zealand. DESCRIPTION: ''The ongaonga is said to begin life as a number of small plants, which spread (papa uku) over the ground, and are afterwards replaced by a single large stem. Ins. More dramatic effects of Urtica stings are typified by Urtica chamaedryoides Pursh, possibly the most toxic Urtica species, which has poisoned dogs with excessive salivation, nausea, vomiting, pawing at the face, epistaxis, respiratory distress, slow and irregular heartbeat, ataxia, muscular weakness, and fasciculations (Coile, 2010), a similar syndrome to that reported with U. ferox (Clark, … They raise red welts that itch, called hives. Annals of Botany (London), 98:57-65. His epiphany came to him when he spoke to a colleague and friend by the name of John Coutts, who related a strange case of two young men who had a harrowing encounter in the same area back in 1961 after wandering through a patch of tree nettles native to the area called Urtica Ferox, which grow to up to 10 feet high and which are covered with stiff, stinging hairs that can administer a poison called … Urtica Ferox – Ongaonga. 1. Discussion. Austr. Like all nettles, it is covered in stinging hairs that put poison into the skin of a person or animal that brushes against it. Some species (such as Urtica ferox of New Zealand) ... promoting the elimination of phlegmatic and phlegmatic-bilious toxins and accumulations ("stasis"), even where there is a melancholic component that "hardens" them; it is a regulator of Melancolia (which also acts at the level of the Blood); it is a stimulant of metabolic functions in general. Tree nettle (Urtica ferox) poisoning. It is the larger-growing Urtica ferox that has justifiably given the genus a deadly reputation, but for most encounters it merely sends a stinging message that it is not to be tangled with. 0000007847 00000 n 0000004219 00000 n Others, such as Solanum, are rarely eaten. On Boxing Day 1961 two young men hunting in the Ruahine Range stumbled through a patch of tree nettle and received a number of stings on their limbs. Two young men hunting in the mountain ranges of the central North … Most common in gardens is the introduced stinging nettle, whose "bite" is unpleasant, while the nastiest is native ongaonga (Urtica ferox).Cleavers or sticky burr weed (Galium aparine) will leave scarlet lines on skin but fortunately most fade quickly. Urtica is the Latin word for “nettle,” and the ongaonga tree is also known as the tree nettle or Urtica ferox. Most notorious is the tree nettle or ongaonga, Urtica ferox. While the exact makeup of these toxins is under investigation, the effect is certain. 0000001669 00000 n Take for instance Ongaonga, the New Zealand tree nettle. 0000034353 00000 n 0000065371 00000 n : +64 3 474 0999; fax: +64 3 474 7625. The tree nettle or ongaonga, Urtica ferox. Within an hour, one was struggling to breathe, then he went blind. It is a shrub that reaches up to three meters tall and often occurs in dense thickets. One species, Urtica ferox, which is found in New Zealand, has even been known to cause death in animals and at least one human. 0000003636 00000 n This case demonstrates that cutaneous exposure to Urtica ferox can cause an acute polyneuropathy and that its stinging hairs contain an unidentified neurotoxin. A species of stinging nettle, Urtica ferox, is indigenous to New Zealand and has caused deaths in animals and humans. A species of stinging nettle, Urtica ferox, is indigenous to New Zealand and has caused deaths in animals and humans. Contact with the stinging hairs of the plant causes painful stinging and allergic reactions in the skin, including welts, hives, itching, burning sensation, and general irritation. A case of canine poisoning with New Zealand Tree Nettle (Ongaonga, Urtica ferox). The red admiral lays its eggs on the nettle leaves, even on the sides of the stinging hairs. 0 34. 0000000016 00000 n Urtica ferox is a New Zealand endemic that is commonly found in coastal and lowland areas as well as forest edges and shrublands. These exude a toxin that when makes contact to the skin of humans and animals will cause serious pain and sometimes death. After cooking, some plants with stinging hairs, such as Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), are eaten as vegetables. It may also have a white bump (s)that will maybe spread a little. In New Zealand the genus is represented by 5 species one of them the tree nettle, Urtica ferox. … Native plants can pack a serious poisonous punch, and death is by no means quick or. N Z Vet J. Category Botany 2011. Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, has been known to humankind for thousands of years (at least in water solution). The signs and symptoms resulting from poisoning from these plants are discussed. pleasant. 0000002848 00000 n x�bbbf`b``` J b He died five hours later. PMID: 8367088 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Publication Types: It does not sequester toxins like the monarch but uses ongaonga or stinging nettle (Urtica ferox) as its larval food plant. 62 0 obj <>stream Roberts, Nelson, New Zealand. This toxin contains histamine, serotonin and acetylcholine, the last of which causes powerful stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve system. Typical toxins included in nettle tricomes are formic acid, like in many ant species, and neurotransmitters like serotonin, and histamine. It’s a plant found only in New Zealand, a tree nettle whose spines have a sting that, in sufficient amounts, can kill a small dog. Apart from allergies it can be said that the toxin of the Ongaonga (Urtica ferox), a nettle endemic to Aotearoa (New Zealand), can cause the most irreversible (polyneuropathy) and most painful injuries. N Z Med J. The brittle tip of the hair breaks off on contact, and as the hair is pushed into the sac of toxins at its base the toxins are forced up its hollow shaft.

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